Spoofing is a class of attack on a biometric security system where a malicious individual attempts to circumvent the correspondence between the biometric data acquired from an individual and the individual itself. That is, the malicious individual tries to introduce fake biometric data into a system that does not belong to that individual, either at enrollment and/or authentication.
The exact techniques for spoofing vary, depending on the particular type of biometric involved. Typically though, such methods involve the use of some form of prosthetic, such as a fake finger, substitution of a high-resolution image of an iris, a mask, and so forth. Fig gives a spoofing mask.
The degree of veracity of the prosthetic varies according to the precision of the biometric device being spoofed and the freedom that the attacker has in interacting with the device. It is surprising how relatively simple methods can be successful at circumventing the security of commonly available contemporary biometric devices
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