Bluetooth Components

When a device is connected with the Bluetooth module, it is called as a Bluetooth device. The Bluetooth device’s architecture is shown below:

A Bluetooth device incorporates: A Host device & A Bluetooth Module

Host device:

A Host device could be a mobile phone, a personal digital assistant (PDA), a computer, a printer or a scanner or a headset.

Bluetooth Module:

The Bluetooth module incorporates the following main components:
        Bluetooth Radio       
        Bluetooth controller
        Host controller

Bluetooth Radio (With Modem and Antenna):           

The main component of a Bluetooth device is the Blue tooth Radio. It is an extremely small radio which is built into a computer chip. It consumes very little power. Every Bluetooth radio conforms to the exact same specifications for both transmitting and receiving signals, so that they can be used anywhere in the world without modification.

This radio serves as both- transmitter and receiver (Transceiver); it also functions as a Modem – modulating and demodulating the signals. The Bluetooth radio transmitter transmits over the 2.4GHz RF band, and uses Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) to modulate its signal. When it acts as a receiver, it tunes to the proper carrier frequency and adapts to the strength of the signal received. It has an antenna incorporated for this transceiving purpose.

This radio utilizes spread spectrum frequency hopping and Time Division Duplexing (TDD) technologies. A Bluetooth radio can function over a 10-meter (approximately 30-foot) range and this fixes the range of a Bluetooth device. It interfaces directly to the Link Controller, Host Controller, and to the host device.

Bluetooth Controller:

It is an IC chip which implements the Bluetooth Baseband protocol and functions. It contains the Link Controller, which performs basic connection and configuration activities.

Host Controller:

The Host Controller (HC) is that part of the Bluetooth module that manages all communication and interaction between the Bluetooth module and the host device. It also interprets the data received from the host and directs it to the appropriate components of the Bluetooth module.

So, these components bring out a Bluetooth device. But, how does a Bluetooth device interacts with another Bluetooth device?

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